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Hello!

I am about to graduate with a liberal arts degree. Do I have any hope of qualifying for Federal jobs?

Dear Advisor:

The hot degrees in our school are in health care, accounting, and technology. What chance do I have of a good job in government with a liberal arts degree? I have always wanted to work for the Federal government, because I believe government helps those who need help. The Agencies I have approached do not seem to be as receptive to me as they are to my classmates with hot degrees. Also, I haven’t worked in a full time position before. What are my chances of getting into a Federal agency? What occupations are appropriate and how do I apply? And finally, with the Federal government in perpetual budget crisis, are there any jobs to begin with?

Hopefully yours,
John Ross.

San Antonio TX

Dear John Ross.:

Starting with your last question: Yes, there will be Federal jobs as long as there is a Federal government. Many positions are mission critical. In the past even a freeze of Federal hiring exempted many positions. The best approach is to continue to apply regardless of the political climate at the moment. You have nothing to lose. Applications are kept on file for months. So even if no jobs are open in a given week, the next week may be different. Let’s move onto your other questions.

In the last several years hiring pathways for entry level professional positions, exclusive of the sciences, have changed. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) eliminated written exams for professional candidates and the central registers, which is to say applicant inventories or waiting lists (also called Job Registries), that went with them. In years past thousands of liberal arts graduates entered Federal service by way of the written exam for professional positions. They are no more, mainly because written exams and test scores were found to be discriminatory.

Instead, other hiring pathways are in use for the liberal arts graduate. Science, business, or medical graduates have usually been hired directly, by an Agency with a job, into a GS-5 or GS-7 professional position. This same approach now applies to all graduates. It is called ‘direct hire’ or ‘case examining' which means the Agency decides who it wants to hire for a given position.

Direct Hire/Case Examining
Case examining means each opening is decided on a case-by-case basis, that is, no general approach to openings is taken. As part of the latest efforts to streamline the Federal hiring process, Agencies have been given more of this case examining authority. As a result, they are able to hire candidates directly on their own authority, for the entry level professional grades, grades 5 and 7, GS 5/7.

Candidates who have good credentials, but who do not qualify for VRA (see below), may find an Agency with the authority to hire an entry level liberal arts graduate under case examining. In these situations the job is listed by the Agency as a professional level job, i.e., GS-5 or GS-7 (not clerical level, GS-3 or GS-6).

To apply under ‘Direct Hire/Case Examing’ just follow the application instructions for any given vacancy for which you believe you are qualified.

The difference between this approach, and programs of the past, is that past programs did not specify a given position with a given Agency at a given location. Those past programs applied you for many openings in many Agencies simultaneously. That was certainly a convenience, but it was also very slow. Sometimes years passed before applicants were called for an interview. The new system means you must apply for many positions, for any position, that seems right. That’s more work, but it is faster.

Veterans Readjustment Appointment
Still another approach for the library arts grad who has also served in the military is a program called VRA or Veterans Readjustment Appointment. If you have served at least 180 days in the military and do not have a dishonorable discharge, you can apply under this program for any job up to GS-7. The program is non-competitive meaning you do not have to compete against non-vets, but also you do not get tenure. You can work for up to 2 years and apply at any time for a regular competitive service position. If you have a good work record, your chances of successful appointment to a tenured, competitive service job are good.

Clerical Exam
Another way into Federal service is to take a position at the clerical level, that is at GS-4 or less. Sometimes this may mean taking the clerical exam which is not originally intended for professional job candidates, but can be used by anybody. Having passed the clerical exam or been hired on the basis of a good resume, applicants are then eligible to be hired into a clerical position, that is a GS-2 to GS-4 position.

Once you have secured a GS 4 position, you may be able to move quickly (sometimes in only a few months) up the ladder to a professional level GS 5 or GS 7 position through internal or Merit promotion.

Recent hiring statistics show that more and more college graduates are taking the clerical exam just to get a foot in the door.

Which Hiring Pathway
How do you determine which hiring pathway, VRA, clerical level or case examining is applicable to a given job? You must study the Vacancy Announcement and read the section called “Who May Apply”. It may say, “All qualified U.S. citizens” for a professional level job which means that case examining may apply. Vacancy Announcements can be read on this website.

Good Preparation
One of the keys to landing a job directly with an Agency is good application and interview preparation. Get to know something about and be able to express an interest in the Agency with the job openings. Do not simply express an interest in working for the Federal government.

Be sure that your resume meets the requirements for Federal resumes. You can use this website for this purpose also.

All Agencies have a web site where interesting information about the Agency, including its mission statement, can be found. Demonstrate a personal interest in the Agency’s mission. Also show specifically that you have the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA’s) to handle the job that is open. A good background at school and good applicant preparation will most likely result in a good outcome for you.

To submit questions to the Federal Jobs Advisor, write to: Federal Jobs Advisor, Federal Jobs Digest, 1503 Radcliff Court, Newtown Square PA 19073. We regret that not all questions may be answered. •